Tradition has it that Caradosso Foppa worked for the mints in both Milan and Rome. Until now, documentary proof of this has been lacking. A document in the Rome archives proves that this was true. Upon the death of Ulrich Fugger (1510), his heirs sought to renegotiate the agreement that existed between their family and Caradosso. Jacob Fugger agreed that Caradosso could continue to direct the mint, but only if he were willing to reimburse to the family half the real cost of the "furnishings and provisions for the functioning of the said mint".
Among the regional centers of fifteenth-century Italy, the city-state of Ferrara is distinguished by particularly distinctive and noteworthy artistic styles. Unfortunately, a number of generalizations have arisen that give a false idea of the nature of the local styles. These myths include the notions that Ferrarese art of the Quattrocento was particularly harsh and neurotic, that artistic production was unusually collaborative, and that the iconography was more complex than that found elsewhere in Italy. In addition, the overestimation of the role of particular artists there has given rise to a number of attributional problems, especially the idea that Cosme Tura provided drawings or cartoons for the most important surviving mural cycle of Quattrocento Ferrara, the Hall of the Months in the Palazzo Schifanoia.
Michelangelo's Bacchus, a more subtle and complex work of figure sculpture than has been recognized, can be fully understood only when it is seen from several different angles by a spectator walking around it. In some views the figure seems to be lurching and off-balance, while in others he appears stable and gracefully poised. This study is an analysis of the varying impressions gained from a number of significant views of the figure, and argues that Michelangelo consciously sought to add a temporal dimension to the work by having Bacchus appear to lose, regain, then lose his balance again.
Situated in the heart of Giulio Boiardo's and Silvia Sanvitale's new apartment complex in the Rocca Nuova at Scandiano, the Camerino dell'Eneide was a small rectangular room, lavishly decorated. The imagery depicted on its walls, particularly in the octagon, speaks not only to the more usual issues of self-fashioning, joint patronage and marriage alliances, but, more importantly, it illustrates the concept of the bilinear family. It is my contention that Laura Pallavicina is the matron of a bilinear family; she speaks of her power and of her position, not only through her daughter, Silvia Sanvitale, but in all her dealings whether it be through her letters to her life-long friend, Pope Paul III Farnese, or in the arrangement of the marriage of her son, Alfonso, to Gerolama Farnese in 1538. Through their artistic patronage both Pallavicina and Sanvitale, who used their own wealth to commission art and architecture, communicate publicly to their peers about family, religion and politics. Indeed, Laura Pallavicina, through her children, creates a certain dynastic image that conforms to the model of the bilinear family.
The article presents a new historical interpretation of the Battle of the Amazons and a new aspect for the dating. Rubens used the ancient literary sources for his mythological paintings but they always include ulterior meaning, related to actual events. This painting has not yet been linked with contemporary aspects, although none of the ancient myths can be related to it. Rubens interpreted the theme in an entirely new way showing an unusual degree of brutality and specific contemporary customs. The imminent assumption of hostilities caused the novel demonstration of violence apart from literary programs. This interpretation as a war picture dates the Battle towards the end of the armistice in the Low Countries in 1621.
In the Italian Renaissance, architects turned to antique sources such as Pliny and Vitruvius as they began to open up domestic space to light, air and landscape. Instead of relying on the thermal inertia of the thick-walled mediaeval castle, they enlarged windows and added loggias to both villas and palaces. Inspired by the ancients, they incorporated seasonal flexibility into their designs, allowing vertical or horizontal shifts from one apartment to another according to the time of year.
The article presents Katarzyna Kobro's innovative contribution to the sculpture of the 1920s and 1930s. Born in Moscow, Kobro may have been educated by Kasimir Malevich and Vladimir Tatlin , whose works influenced her artistic formation. The most original and important of her works are the Unistic sculptures. The main postulate of the Unistic theory regarding sculpture was unity of the work of art and its environment. An Unistic sculpture had to maintain links with space; to achieve this, the solid, which closes off the sculpture from space, had to be renounced. The very first sculptures to renounce the solid were Kobro's "spatial compositions", constructed so as to form a continuum with infinity and with time. Their extremely simple structure, capable of both penetrating and absorbing space into itself, was in accordance with the Unistic theory which stated that a sculpture does not exist for its own sake, its aim being to sculpt space. In 1945 Kobro donated all her sculptures to the Muzeum Sztuki in Łódź, where they can be seen today, displayed in the "Neo-Plastic Room" designed by Kobro's husband, Władysław Strzemiński.